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Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Selected genetically modified pigs available for xenotransplantation research

Deletion of αGal or non-αGal antigens
*α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO, deletion of Galα1,3Galα1,4GlcNAc-R)
Isoglobotrihexosylceramide synthase gene-knockout (A3GalT2KO, deletion of isogloboside 3)
*Cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene-knockout (CMAHKO, deletion of N-glycolylneuraminic acid)
*β1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase gene-knockout (β4GalNT2KO, deletion of Sd(a) antigen)
Complement regulation by expression of human complement-regulatory protein
*Human CD46 gene-knockin (hCD46KI, membrane cofactor protein)
*Human CD55 gene-knockin (hCD55KI, decay-accelerating factor)
Human CD59 gene-knockin (hCD59KI, protectin or membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis)
Human von Willebrand factor gene-knockin (hvWFKI, von Willebrand factor)
Porcine von Willebrand factor-deficient mutant
Human tissue factor pathway inhibitor gene-knockin (hTFPIKI, tissue factor pathway inhibitor)
*Human thrombomodulin gene-knockin (hTHBDKI, thrombomodulin)
*Human endothelial protein C receptor gene-knockin (hPROCRKI, endothelial protein C receptor)
Human CD39 gene-knockin (hCD39KI, ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1)
Human tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 3 gene-knockin (hTNFAIP3KI, A20)
*Human heme oxygenase-1 gene-knockin (hHMOX1KI, heme oxygenase 1)
Suppression of cellular responses by gene expression or downregulation
*Human CD47 gene-knockin (hCD47KI, species-specific interaction with SIRP-α inhibits phagocytosis)
Porcine asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 gene-knockout (ASGR1KO, decreases platelet phagocytosis)
Human dominant-negative mutant MHC class II transactivator gene-knockin (CIITA-DN, suppresses swine leukocyte antigen class II)
Swine leukocyte antigen-I heavy α-chain or light β-chain gene-knockout (MHC-IKO, deletion of swine leukocyte antigen class I)
Enhancement of biocompatibility
*Porcine growth hormone receptor gene-knockout (GHRKO, reduces overgrowth of the xenografts)

Modified from an original list compiled by Cooper DK, et al. [6].

*Genetic modifications in the first in clinical trials of xenotransplantation [41].

Lab Med Online 2023;13:275~281
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